Beyond CBD: Get To Know the Newest Hemp Cannabinoids
September 05, 20225 min read
Beyond CBD: Get To Know the Newest Hemp Cannabinoids
Hemp-derived CBD is the most famous herbal remedy in people's lives due to its benefits in tackling chronic conditions. Hemp plants contain other cannabinoids that also find their space in the current world. The article explains the newest hemp cannabinoids by elaborating the following; what are hemp plants and CBD? Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); HHC (hexahydrocannabinol); CBN ( cannabinol), and Cannabigerol (CBG).
As world scientific research grows, more cannabis compounds are being discovered and extracted from the hemp plant. Over 100 cannabinoids exist naturally in the plant, and majorities are yet to be known. Hemp-derived products like gummies and oils are the most famous cannabinoids of the hemp plant due to their health and recreational benefits. CBD dominates the plant concentration, while THC exists at low levels but is not compared to lesser known cannabinoids like cannabinol (CBN), HHC, and Cannabigerol (CBG). Each cannabinoid in the plant may have some similarity in its chemical structure, but in the modern world, they have found their space differently.
What Are Hemp Plants and CBD?
Hemp is a plant that belongs to the cannabis sativa species. Traditionally it has been grown to make ropes and clothes and used for cooking until scientists discovered cannabinoids which have proven effective. The cannabinoid that is dominant in the leaves, stalk, and flowers of the hemp plant is CBD. The compound has its place in the health sector by exhibiting healthy properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-intoxicating, pain reliever, and non-dependency supplements. The 2018 farm law signed by President Trump allows the growing and manufacturing of all hemp-derived products. Thus, CBD is available over the county in various products like lotions, creams, vape pens, body scrubs, capsules, soft gels, sprays, and edibles. According to Pamplona et al. (2018), CBD, apart from treating epilepsy symptoms, most health providers administer the supplement for the following reasons:
Treating chronic pains and inflammation associated with arthritis, surgery, muscle tear, and sore throats
Treating skin diseases like acne and eczema
Treating anxiety disorders like GAD and panic attacks
Used in therapy sessions against depression, PTSD, and AIDS
Treating Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ADHD
Used in the cancer treatment process to reduce nausea and vomiting associated with medicinal symptoms
Treating IBD ( inflammatory Bowel disease)
Improving sleep quality for insomnia patients
Treating dependency on other cannabinoids like THC
Another famous compound in the hemp plant IS tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is less concentrated than CBD.
THC is responsible for producing psychoactive effects. Depending on the THC molecule consumed, the effects make you calm, relaxed, euphoric, have a high appetite, anxious, delusional, and sometimes confused. The hemp plant contains different THC cannabinoids with different effects on the human body; they are explained below;
It is more famous than other THC cannabinoids; it comes with better and more uplifted moods. It is sometimes created by extracting CBD from the hemp plant through the isomerization process. The cannabinoid infinity is that it binds directly with the body's CB1 receptors in the brain to induce a feeling of highness together with euphoric effects. However, the cannabinoid, when misused, causes undesirable side effects like hypertension, high heartbeats, panic attacks, increased anxiety, dizziness, and some lack of appetite.
Kruger et al. (2021) explained that delta-8 (dronabinol) is a form of THC that has been spotted recently for a good reason since it offers similar effects to delta-9 but tends to be less mild and has fewer negative effects. Because the compound is present in the plant in low concentration, it is manufactured by converting hemp-derived CBD by use of acids and filtration. Unlike delta-9 THC, available in vapes and gummies, there are capsules and edibles infused with delta-8. Its effects of delta-8 lie in the middle of CBD and delta -9, providing highness that is remarkably calming, relaxing, and chilling or fresh. High doses can help alleviate pain, inflammation, and anxiety, boosting appetite and sleep.
Delta -10 THC
It is the newest cannabinoid of the hemp plant and is already gaining popularity because of its ability to provide positive energetic effects that help improve focus. Matthews & Ted (2021) noted that delta-10 shares a similar chemical structure with its cousins delta-9 and 8, though its molecular arrangement is different, which translates to its unique effects. It weakly bonds with cannabinoid receptors to induce improved creativity, alertness, concentration, and productivity.
HHC exists naturally in low concentrations in the hemp plant. Its molecular structure is similar to THC but possesses less mild psychoactive effects that induce feelings of confusion, euphoria, and relaxation. When used in large doses, like CBD, it helps in pain relive, inflammation, anxiety control, and sleep boost. Although different from CBD, which induces the production of body cannabinoids, it bonds with body receptors, especially CB1, to portray those benefits. HHC can be considered a semi-synthetic compound since cannabinoids exist in small quantities, making them hard to extract. It is produced by hydrogenating THC chemically to convert it into hydrogen atoms and then to expose it to metal catalysts such as Zinc.
CBN is another new cannabinoid in the hemp plant. It is a result of THC degradation when exposed to heat or air, thus in large concentrations of dry and aged hemp plants. Like CBD, it is non-psychoactive; thus, it is not characterized by highness and dependency. It is used in hospitals to combat symptoms of glaucoma, an eye condition that destroys the optic nerve resulting in vision problems. It destroys the nerve by providing high pressure in the eyes, causing painful damage. CBN application in eye drops led to a high cell survival rate when cells were exposed to high-pressure conditions. It has neuroprotective properties that protect the nervous system by alleviating natural cell death. Additionally, it helps alleviate muscle pain because its anti-inflammatory properties relieve muscle pain disorders such as jaw and joint pain. Unfortunately, it is associated with side effects like drowsiness and sedation
CBG is referred to by scientists as the mother of other cannabinoids because they are extracted from Cannabigerol acid (CBGA). Moisan & Marie-Pierre (2013) explained that CBG is available in a very small quantity in the hemp plant than other cannabinoids with less than 1% of the plant strains. Its popularity is growing since it can treat a condition such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). It treats the condition by reducing the production of nitric oxide, which increases the release of inflammations in the digestive tract. In addition, recent research shows that CBG helps fight cancer cells by blocking receptors that cause cancer cell growth. However, it does not cause relaxation and calm associated with most cannabinoids; hence it portrays side effects like lack of sleep, anxiety increase, and loss of appetite.
Beyond CBD, the hemp plant has proven to produce a variety of cannabinoids that are essential in your recreation activities and overall body health. CBD and THC are the most popular cannabinoids, while CBN, HHC, and CBD are less known and new emerging cannabinoids in the hemp plant. They all interact with body cannabinoid receptors differently, where THC and HHC bind with the receptors to portray psychoactive effects. At the same time, CBD, CBG, and CBN induce the receptors to increase their efficiency in tackling body imbalances. Before using any cannabinoid, apart from doing research, consult your physician to help you know the ideal dosage and effects on the body.
Kruger, D. J., & Kruger, J. S. (2021). Consumer Experiences With Delta-8-THC: Medical Use, Pharmaceutical Substitution, And Comparisons With Delta-9-THC. Cannabis And Cannabinoid Research.
Matthews, T. (2021). What's The Difference Between Delta-9 And Delta-10?
Moisan, M. P. (2013). CBG: A Cortisol Reservoir Rather Than A Transporter. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 9(2), 78-78.
Pamplona, F. A., Da Silva, L. R., & Coan, A. C. (2018). Potential Clinical Benefits Of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD In Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-Analysis. Frontiers In Neurology, 759.