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How Is CBD Oil Made?

August 26, 2022 5 min read

How Is CBD Oil Made?

How Is CBD Oil Made?

Have you heard about CBD oil and its therapeutic benefits? Do you want to broaden your horizons by learning how CBD oil is made? Find out more processes used for making CBD oil in this article.

When taking CBD oil, the effects and potency may differ depending on the methods used during extraction as the first process by the oil manufacturer. Each step used during the manufacturing of CBD oil must be carried out under high precision and caution to ensure you have CBD oil with high potency, purity, and strength. You can use the high-quality USA or EU hemp. The extraction method renders the final product poorly, with impurities or low potency. This article looks at the best CBD extraction methods for preparing CBD oil. The methods of extracting CBD affect the quality of the CBD oil after the process. Better extraction techniques call for high-end CBD oils, while shabby techniques lead to low-quality CBD oil.

What is CBD

It's best to talk about it before making CBD oil to benefit those who don't know CBD or want to gain some background information.

CBD oil is an active chemical compound occupying the largest percentage of hemp and the second most active compound in marijuana after hemp. CBD oil is usually made from hemp since it is legalized, and most are grown under fixed regulations. CBD from hemp has less than 0.3 percent THC, meaning it doesn't have psychoactive or intoxicating effects as THC. However, CBD harnessed from marijuana contains at least ten percent THC. This level is too high; Solowij et al. (2019) suggested that you will experience THC's intoxicating and psychoactive effects. Hemp is legalized in more than fifty states due to many health claims. While THC remains under the controlled substances act, some exemptional countries have legalized THC for its medicinal properties.

How Is CBD Oil Made?

The first process in making CBD oil is harvesting mature CBD oil and transporting it to the relevant factories. The hemp is sorted out to remove other unwanted substances that may affect the quality of the oil. The CBD is put under extraction after sorting out. There are many extraction processes; hence each manufacturer has the right to choose what fits them.

The Extraction of CBD From Hemp

Several methods are used. They have pros and cons. These methods include

Carbon IV Oxide Extraction

This is the most efficient process of harnessing pure and potent CBD from hemp. CBD oil made from CBD extracted by this process is expensive compared to other methods. Manufacturing companies offering premium products use this method to extract CBD to make their oils. The methods provide more clean and potent CBD than other methods. The method is not used for CBD alone. It is applied in extracting coffee from the beans, nicotine from tobacco, and other spices and flavors.

This extraction method is split into supercritical and subcritical phases, with the former being a common phase. The method is used for harnessing CBD to make all the other CBD products ranging from oils, gummies, topicals, and tinctures.

The shared technology between the two phases involves running liquefied carbon iv oxide across the hemp plant to extract the CBD and desired phytochemicals such as terpenes, fatty acids, and flavonoids. According to Teräsvalli (2020), liquified CO2 is an excellent solvent with no side effects and is preferred for producing high-quality CBD oil.

Supercritical CBD Extraction

According to Rovetto & Aieta (2017), the supercritical CBD extraction method involves using liquefied CO2 and gradually increasing its temperature and pressure to bring it to the supercritical state. In this state, the CO2 has both liquid and gaseous properties simultaneously. It fills the container as gas and has a density comparable to liquid that acts as a solvent during the process.

Hong et al. (2015) showed that the supercritical state CO2 acts on the hemp without denaturing any Phyto chemical compounds. The study above suggested that the method needs maintenance of high pressure and temperature, explaining why expensive equipment is needed calling foie the high cost of the end product.

The resulting solution is pushed to the separator where isolated phytochemicals are extracted, and CO2is directed elsewhere after passing the supercritical carbon iv oxide in hemp. The CO2 is stored for reusing while the CBD and other plant chemicals are stored, ready for the next process.

Subcritical CBD Extraction

The difference between these two processes is that supercritical uses high temperature and pressure while supercritical uses low temperature and pressure. This process takes longer compared to the former. However, there are low chances of denaturing more delicate phytocompounds from hemp, such as terpenes. Terpene can be destroyed under high temperatures, where they are turned into terpenoids. Although the yield is lower than the first methods, it gives light oils and other essential compounds that may be destroyed in the extraction process. Unfortunately, heavy Phyto-chemicals will be left behind in the plant reduced; hence it can be considered a loss.

Solvents Extraction

This is the cheapest and easiest method for making CBD oil. You can do it without special equipment in the comfort of your home if it's not large scale. However, it's not recommended because the end product has issues that may reduce the potency or purity.

The method involves the use of alcohol such as ethanol or butane. The alcohol is then passed through the hemp matter, striping all the phytochemicals to the collection dish. The resulting solution is evaporated, leaving concentrated oily residue in the dish full of hemp chemicals.

The problem with these methods is that it extracts all the Phyto-chemicals and chlorophyll. This leads to unwanted side effects such as bitterness of the oil because separation is hard. Evans (2021) noted that separating the alcohol from the CBD needs high caution and precision; otherwise, you may trigger an explosion.

The Bottom Line

CBD oil is an active chemical compound occupying the largest percentage of hemp and the second most active compound in marijuana after hemp. CBD oil is usually made from hemp since it is legalized, and most are grown under fixed regulations. CBD from hemp has less than 0.3 percent THC, meaning it doesn't have psychoactive or intoxicating effects as THC. However, CBD harnessed from marijuana contains at least ten percent THC. This level is too high; thus, you will experience THC's intoxicating and psychoactive effects. Hemp is legalized in more than fifty states due to many health claims, while THC remains under the controlled substances act.

References

Evans, J. (2021). Cannabis Drinks: Secrets To Crafting CBD And THC Beverages At Home. Fair Winds Press (MA).

Hong, S., Sowndhararajan, K., Joo, T., Lim, C., Cho, H., Kim, S., ... & Jhoo, J. W. (2015). Ethanol And Supercritical Fluid Extracts Of Hemp Seed (Cannabis Sativa L.) Increase Gene Expression Of Antioxidant Enzymes In Hepg2 Cells. Asian Pacific Journal Of Reproduction, 4(2), 147-152.

Rovetto, L. J., & Aieta, N. V. (2017). Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Of Cannabinoids From Cannabis Sativa L. The Journal Of Supercritical Fluids, 129, 16-27.

Solowij, N., Broyd, S., Greenwood, L. M., Van Hell, H., Martelozzo, D., Rueb, K., ... & Croft, R. (2019). A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Vaporized Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Cannabidiol Alone And In Combination In Frequent And Infrequent Cannabis Users: Acute Intoxication Effects. European Archives Of Psychiatry And Clinical Neuroscience, 269(1),17-35.

Teräsvalli, H. (2020). Extraction And Purification Of Cannabidiol.