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How Is CBD Oil Made and Extracted?

August 30, 2022 5 min read

How Is CBD Oil Made and Extracted?

How Is CBD Oil Made and Extracted?

A high-quality and pure CBD oil is extracted from natural hemp or cannabis plant. Its purity levels depend on the number of plant compounds and other cannabinoids.

CBD oil is a widespread product, and everyone is talking about it. It seems like every business person is impressed by this product. Entrepreneurs in the beauty, food supplements, and pharmaceutical industries are grabbing every little opportunity to use CBD oil because of its therapeutic effects. Internet is largely contributing to the popularity of this product. You can browse on social media, and suddenly an advertisement pops on the screen showcasing different CBD products. CBD entrepreneurs have done everything to ensure everyone knows about cannabidiol and its positive effects. With all the recognition CBD products receive worldwide, you may have many questions in your mind. This article highlights how CBD oil is made and extracted.

How CBD Oil is Made

Manufacturers apply different techniques for manufacturing CBD oil. They do whatever they can to keep their CBD oil production process sustainable and focus on producing CBD oil products that are 100% natural and pure. Some manufacturers use insecticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals to grow hemp plants, while other producers use none of these substances. Here is how most CBD producers make CBD oil to make the product effective in improving consumers' health.

Soil Preparation

Before anything else, the soil is prepared thoroughly to provide hemp a good place for growth. The entire hemp growing process depends on the soil foundation. The soil is prepared through a process called tilling. Producers install drainage lines to maximize yield by preventing the soil from becoming saturated. The soil is dug about 12-18 inches deep, and the seeds are sown. Different crops are usually grown amidst annual hemp cycles to ensure the soil does not get exhausted of the same nutrients and lose its quality. This technique decreases the need to use synthetic fertilizers, leading to the growth of the natural hemp plant. According to Jeff et al. (2019), crop rotation has been an excellent method for hemp manufacturers to grow pure hemp plants.

Sowing

Hemp seeds are sown into the soil grooves after the frosty weather is over. Mostly, sowing begins in March. CBD producers use machines to sow the seeds, and it takes as little as 1-2 days to notice signs of growth. Within four weeks, the plant will be two feet tall. Dhondt et al. (2021) stated that natural hemp cultivation does not need insecticides, fertilizers, or other chemicals. Rainwater and natural nutrients in the soil are sufficient for good plant health and impressive growth.

Cultivation

Hemp flowers have a 6 months-long growth cycle, but their seeds may have a shorter cycle. Most CBD plants are harvested in August or September. The cultivation process is usually easy as long as the prior stages are carried out naturally and thoroughly.

Harvesting

 The hemp plant can only be harvested excellently if the conditions used are favorable and done correctly. Producers harvest after the plants are completely grown. For impressive yields, there should be no excessive rain or humidity. Hemp farmers will monitor the weather requirements and decide the perfect time to harvest well-grown plants. The stems are harvested separately and appreciated for their fiber, while the leaves and flowers are collected specifically for CBD oil production.

Drying

Drying is a critical stage that follows closely after harvest. The hemp plant is dried in a well-controlled environment. It is either selected for CBD extraction to make pure CBD oil or sold as a herb and used for herbal tea. The decision entirely depends on the plant's quality.

CBD Quality and Contamination Testing

Testing is an important stage for CBD oil production. Hemp producers should test the hemp material's purity, quality, and safety. This process involves testing the cannabinoid content and checking the presence of toxins and other unwanted compounds. The material is pushed forward to the next CBD extraction process if the test results are positive. If any contaminants or low-quality CBD content is noted, the material will go back for further purification. The company will discard the material if the graded hemp appears unsafe.

How CBD Oil Is Extracted

Various CBD extractions methods are used to make pure CBD oil. Multiple techniques are applied to extract CBD from hemp or cannabis plant and turn it into CBD oil. The most popular methods include;

  • Oil extraction
  • A CO2 extraction
  • A liquid solvent extraction

CO2 Extraction

Aiello et al. (2020) explained why carbon dioxide is a technically advanced way of making CBD oil. Although it's the most expensive technique, it creates the safest and most potent chlorophyll-free CBD oil. The main types of C02 extraction are; subcritical, mid-critical, and supercritical. The supercritical method is the most popular. It destroys bacteria and all contaminants that might have remained in the CBD oil after extraction. The superficial CO2 passes through the hemp plant and extracts the terpenes, trichomes, and cannabinoids. The mixture is directed to another chamber where these compounds are separated. CBD oil is then collected while CO2 is driven back to the original chamber for re-use.

Oil Extraction Method

This technique uses olive oil, which can be done at home. The plant material is decarboxylated, then the hemp and oil are heated to obtain pure oil. The oil obtained from this method is not as concentrated as that extracted from other extraction methods.

Liquid Solvent Extraction Method

According to Qamar et al. (2021), this is a cheap and safety-lenient CBD extraction method. This method uses low-grade alcohol like isopropyl or ethanol to extract CBD. The plant waxes are dissolved, and the chlorophyll is removed through filtration. The liquid collected is heated to release cannabinoid extracts in an oil form.

Types of CBD Oil:

  • Full-spectrum CBD
  • Broad-spectrum CBD
  • CBD isolate
  • PCR CBD oil or PCR hemp oil

Conclusion

CBD oil is formed by extracting CBD from hemp or cannabis plants. The purity of CBD oil largely depends on the extraction method used. The CO2 extraction is costly but is the cleanest and safest technique. The CBD oil obtained offers several medicinal properties. Most brands add natural ingredients to their CBD oil to boost its therapeutic properties and make it taste better. The above article highlights how CBD oil is made and extracted.

References

Aiello, A., Pizzolongo, F., Scognamiglio, G., Romano, A., Masi, P., & Romano, R. (2020). Effects of supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide extraction on hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 55(6), 2472-2480.

Dhondt, F., & Muthu, S. S. (2021). Future sustainable performance of hemp. In Hemp and Sustainability (pp. 81-93). Springer, Singapore.

Jeff, K., & DW, W. (2019). Hemp Agronomy‐Grain and Fiber Production. Industrial Hemp as a Modern Commodity Crop, 58-72.

Qamar, S., Torres, Y. J., Parekh, H. S., & Falconer, J. R. (2021). Effects of ethanol on the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cannabinoids from near equimolar (Thc and cbd balanced) cannabis flower. Separations, 8(9), 154.