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List of Important Cannabinoids and their Work

August 26, 2022 5 min read

List of Important Cannabinoids and their Work

List of Important Cannabinoids and their Work

Since marijuana can create a broad range of compounds, it may be used for many purposes. Cannabis has been shown to have over 500 distinct compounds. Flavonoids and terpenes (the molecules that give cannabis its flavor and aroma) are found in many plants. CBD, CBC, THCV, CBN, and THC cannabinoids are highlighted here!

CBD and THC were long thought to be key actors in cannabis' potential medical effects. Since the plant was banned, there has been limited study, which has not helped. As more scientists obtain access to cannabis for study purposes, they have found that additional cannabinoids are at least partly responsible for marijuana's medical effects. Only the top cannabinoids will be covered, but they include the two most prominent ones: THC and CBD. Read on to understand these substances and their probable health consequences for your well-being.

Cannabinoids: What Are They?

It belongs to a family of chemical substances that operate on our endocannabinoid system's CB (cannabinoid) receptors (ECS). Forty years ago, scientists thought cannabis had behavioral and physiological effects due to its interaction with cell membranes. Cannabis and its cannabinoids were originally shown to have physiological and psychological effects when cannabinoid receptors were first discovered. The CB1 and CB2 receptors are well-known, and GPR55 may be a third candidate for study. Others may be hiding in plain sight. THC and other cannabinoids are concentrated in the plant's hairs, which are covered with sparkling trichomes.

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)

Tetrahydrocannabinol, sometimes known as Delta 9-THC, is the most extensively studied and well-known cannabinoid. THC has been shown to bind to the brain's CB1 receptors. Bonini et al. (2018) found that Dopamine is released by the ECS as a consequence, giving marijuana its euphoric and relaxing effects. THC's negative effects include a decrease in your ability to focus, as well as a decrease in your ability to remember, sense, and move.

CBD

CBD has garnered prominence in recent years for its non-psychoactive properties. It turns out that CBD is psychoactive despite the hype, as it eases anxiety and despair and may affect mood. There are some disorienting effects, but nothing like those associated with THC, such as disorientation about time and place, loss of short-term memory, and difficulty coordinating one's body with one's thoughts. A few people report feeling different, but most CBD users report feeling normal. Crippa et al. (2018) established that CBD could help treat epilepsy, Alzheimer's, psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and many other serious illnesses. The group also determined that CBD is very safe to consume, with no known adverse effects or risk of addiction. Although this cannabinoid is currently being studied for a wide range of conditions, only a few of them have enough evidence to support its use.

CBG

CBG is a widely distributed cannabinoid in almost all cannabis species, including hybrids. Like the other cannabinoids, CBG is made the same way as CBGA. CBGA is the starting point for all cannabinoids. CBGA's moniker, "mother of all cannabinoids," is derived from this. Similar to CBD, CBG has also been referred to be a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. CBG seems to work on various receptors other than cannabinoid ones. CBG can address a wide variety of conditions, according to preliminary studies. As a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory medication, CBG is very effective. It has been proven to increase neurogenesis, which is the regrowth of new brain cells, in disorders like Huntington's disease. Colorectal, prostate, and oral cancers may benefit from CBG. If you're suffering from glaucoma, CBG may help lower intraocular pressure, fight MRSA and other antibiotic-resistant germs, and even help regulate emotions like an antidepressant.

THCV – Tetrahydrocannabivarin

Its chemical structure is comparable to THC but has fewer carbon atoms. Although it has the potential to be intoxicating, there isn't enough of it in THCV for you to become wasted on it. In tiny dosages, the molecule is thought to amplify some of THC's effects, but at higher levels, it may serve as an agonist. You'll get a short-lived but intense rush of euphoria and clarity of thought while smoking a high-THCV strain. Though researchers have identified THCV-rich cannabis plants in Pakistan, India, Thailand, and China (among other countries), they have yet to find THCV-rich cannabis plants in Afghanistan. THCV makes up 53% of certain cannabis plants' total cannabinoids. Even though it's a Schedule I substance, THCV isn't on the list. However, because of its common classification as a THC analog, it is also illegal. The ECS CB1 and CB2 receptors bind to THCV in humans. Dose affects the binding process. In recent years, the amount of study on this cannabinoid has skyrocketed because of its obvious health advantages. An appetite suppressant is one of its most likely applications.

CBC

One of the cannabinoids created from CBG is called CBC, and it's a powerful one. This potent antibiotic, like CBN, has been demonstrated to treat infections resistant to previous therapy forms. Taking CBC may prevent Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases when consumed. At the very least, Stone et al. (2020) concluded that rats taking CBC in studies demonstrate that it protects the brain and encourages the brain to produce new brain cells.

CBN

As THC matures, it produces cannabinol (CBN), a naturally occurring cannabinoid that serves as the primary source of CBN. A small amount of CBN is also produced when THC is cooked to high degrees, as occurs when using marijuana for recreational purposes. Depending on desired effects, CBN may or may not be the appropriate cannabinoid for you. Many people believe CBN to be a sedative, yet there is insufficient evidence to back this claim. Nilges et al. (2020) indicated that when mixed with THC, CBN seems to have a sedative effect, but when used alone, it does not. If you're having trouble sleeping, cannabis with high levels of CBN and THC might be the solution. It could also explain why smoking a cigarette vs. vaping weed has a distinct effect. Some other studies have shown that CBN may help with glaucoma treatment and can also be used as a potent antibiotic because of its close relationship to THC. ALS patients may benefit from CBN as well. Human trials are required to validate the effectiveness of CBN in delaying the development of ALS in mice in a study.

Conclusion

This article gives a preview of what cannabis is capable of doing. There are more cannabinoids still to be discovered, and scientists are only getting started in these areas of study. This should offer enough information to begin the search for the correct cannabinoids as a starting point. So many cannabis possibilities allow you to learn to identify the ones that are right for you—and steer clear of the ones you should steer clear of.

References

Bonini, S. A., Premoli, M., Tambaro, S., Kumar, A., Maccarinelli, G., Memo, M., & Mastinu, A. (2018). Cannabis Sativa: A Comprehensive Ethnopharmacological Review Of A Medicinal Plant With A Long History. Journal Of Ethnopharmacology, 227, 300-315.

Crippa, J. A., Guimarães, F. S., Campos, A. C., & Zuardi, A. W. (2018). Translational Investigation Of The Therapeutic Potential Of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward A New Age. Frontiers In Immunology, 9, 2009.

Nilges, M. R., Bondy, Z. B., Grace, J. A., & Winsauer, P. J. (2020). Opioid-Enhancing Antinociceptive Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol And Amitriptyline In Rhesus Macaques. Experimental And Clinical Psychopharmacology, 28(3), 355.

Stone, N. L., Murphy, A. J., England, T. J., & O'Sullivan, S. E. (2020). A Systematic Review Of Minor Phytocannabinoids With Promising Neuroprotective Potential. British Journal Of Pharmacology, 177(19), 4330-4352.