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The 101 Guides to Cannabinoids

September 05, 2022 5 min read

The 101 Guides to Cannabinoids

The 101 Guides to Cannabinoids

The legalization of hemp production in the United States in 2018 led to the commercial use of hemp-based plant products. Hemp pant is a cannabis strain, and another one is marijuana. One is legal, and the other is illegal, depending on the state of origin. With the specific strain of cannabis like Hemp, there are hundreds of cannabinoids. This article explains the guide to cannabinoids, among other related aspects.

Cannabinoids are many compounds found within the hemp plant, a marijuana plant. Most cannabinoids are unknown as most people are exposed to CBD and THC, the two main cannabinoids known. Understand the different kinds of cannabinoids in plants to know the potential benefits and risks. Some known cannabinoids are CBD, which is psychoactive and known for its desired benefits; THC, which is non-psychoactive and intoxicating as it makes one feel high; CBC, CBN, CBT, and Delta strain series, among other cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are obtained through different lab processes; some need complex lab processes to be obtained. The cannabinoids are known to occur within each cannabis sativa plant resin naturally. On the consumption of cannabis, they are responsible for interacting with the receptors in the cell's body and the ECS. More than 100 known cannabinoids exist within the cannabis plant. Some are major cannabinoids known by many, while others are minor cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids Discovery

Discovering cannabinoids of cannabis sativa due to curiosity, Mechoulam, along with his friend, discovered THC as an isolate, one of the most psychoactive cannabinoids in cannabis. It was unknown how an individual's body would interact and react with the cells and receptors to produce the needed effects. It led to the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors in a person found within the brain and ECS. This system help knows how cannabinoid interacts and communicate with them to bring the needed effects.

Types of Cannabinoids

Pourseyed Lazarjani et al. (2020) explained that some types of cannabinoids could be found from the extraction of cannabis sativa. They include;

  • Phytocannabinoids are obtained from plants.
  • Endocannabinoids; is naturally produced by the body
  • Synthetic cannabinoids; are artificial chemicals that help copy the effects produced by Phyto cannabinoids and are alternative pharmaceutical to organic-grown Phytocannabinoids.

Of the three types, Phytocannabinoids are the most important because they have some characteristics that associate with endocannabinoids differently to result in an effect. They also interact with CB1 and CB2 receptors found in the ECS. CB1 is found in the brain; thus, the euphoric effect we obtain from THC consumption. In the CNS, the Phyto cannabinoid can bind a certain G-protein receptor that is coupled. CBD doesn't interact with CB1 but is associated with CB2 receptors in the skin and immune system. The receptors associate with CBD to reduce inflammation, pain, and tissue damage. Phytocannabinoids is a supplement of cannabinoid as it helps the ECS whenever there is a deficiency or an issue.

How Cannabinoids Work

An individual's brain contains an ECS, a communication system. The system is known to naturally produce molecules of cannabinoids that bind to cannabinoid receptors, which regulate cell functioning on how they send, receive, and process different messages. They help regulate activities like sleep, mood, stress, and appetite. Spanagel (2022) added that cannabinoids in the body, like THC, bind with the cannabinoid's receptors, causing dopamine release, a neurotransmitter related to happiness and pleasure. THC is seen to bind with CB1 receptors found in the brain and can affect an individual differently. The cannabinoid interaction with the receptors can have various effects depending on an individual. It is because each person's effects on cannabinoids vary from that of another.

Purpose of the Top Five Cannabinoids

Jikomes & Zoorob (2018) stated that CBD and THC are obtained from the hemp plant and have unique characteristics depending on their chemical compounds. Each cannabinoid found in the cannabis sativa plant or Hemp is an active compound and can immediately affect the body when consumed.

CBG

It is one of the cannabinoids from the hemp plant and contains anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce inflammation in an individual's body. It also helps promote healthy digestion. CBG is associated with Crohn's disease, IBS, and ulcerative colitis. It is seen to have some antibacterial, antiseptic, and antimicrobial properties. On consumption, it is useful as it helps fight off infections of different drug-resistant drugs.

CBC

This type of cannabinoid is known for its antibacterial properties. When taken, it helps fight harmful fungi and microbes in a consumer's gut. It is analgesic in nature as it helps relieve the pain of different kinds. It is non-psychoactive and can synergistically combine with other cannabinoids to provide desired feelings.

CBDA

It is a non-psychoactive type of cannabinoids and a precursor of CBD. Baron et al. (2018) explained that CBDA has turned out to be a more effective antiemetic substance with the ability to relieve nausea and vomiting than both CBD and THC. Some anti-proliferative anti-inflammatory properties help counter tumor growth in body cells.

THCA

Another cannabinoid is known as a great antispasmodic as it helps reduce spasms. It is seen as an analgesic helping with the perception of different pain. Although the information on THCA is anecdotal, it is used to help with neuropathy pains and diseases because it contains neuroprotective properties.

CBDV

It is known as a bone stimulant as it helps with the growth of bones. Also, it helps in reducing nausea and vomiting. CBDV is claimed to help deal with epileptic and other related neurological conditions. When synergically used with CBD, they contain antiepileptic and anticonvulsant properties.

Conclusion

There are many cannabinoids found in the cannabis sativa plant. How the cannabis compound is extracted will determine the number of cannabinoids obtained. The main cannabinoids are CBD, CBC, THC, THCA, and CBDA. They result in various health benefits when consumed by an individual. Users need to be keen on the number of dosages as adverse effects can be obtained when used without a prescription.

References

Baron, E. P., Lucas, P., Eades, J., & Hogue, O. (2018). Patterns Of Medicinal Cannabis Use, Strain Analysis, And Substitution Effect Among Patients With Migraine, Headache, Arthritis, And Chronic Pain In A Medicinal Cannabis Cohort. The Journal Of Headache And Pain, 19(1), 1-28.

Jikomes, N., & Zoorob, M. (2018). The Cannabinoid Content Of Legal Cannabis In Washington State Varies Systematically Across Testing Facilities And Popular Consumer Products. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-15.

Spanagel, R. (2022). Cannabinoids And The Endocannabinoid System In Reward Processing And Addiction: From Mechanisms To Interventions. Dialogues In Clinical Neuroscience.

Pourseyed Lazarjani, M., Torres, S., Hooker, T., Fowlie, C., Young, O., & Seyfoddin, A. (2020). Methods For Quantification Of Cannabinoids: A Narrative Review. Journal Of Cannabis Research, 2(1), 1-10.