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August 31, 2022 5 min read



CBD has become the talk of the town in recent years. Conversations surrounding it have sparked interest, excitement, and uncertainties, especially amongst people unfamiliar with CBD.

CBD products come in three spectrums; full, broad, and isolate spectrums. The spectrums contain varying levels of CBD, THC, and other cannabis derivatives, making them have different effects on the body. Similarly, the products have distinct methods of consumption; edibles, gummies, vapes, and topicals; each method of consumption dispenses CBD into the body differently. Therefore, the choice of a CBD product must consider these factors. In the current article, we discuss the different spectrums of CBD, how they affect the body, and how to shop for the right products from the cannabis market.

Exploring CBD: Should I be on the lookout?

According to Barrie et al. (2019), CBD is a non-psychotropic chemical compound obtained from hemp. Therefore, it does not cause any “high” sensations since it is non-psychoactive

Hemp and marijuana are plant strains of the cannabis plant. Both contain CBD and the psychoactive THC, although in varying amounts. Hemp has high CBD levels, while marijuana has higher THC levels. THC is primarily responsible for the psychoactive effects experienced after using cannabis

Hemp also contains other essential chemical compounds, such as flavonoids and terpenes. According to Desaulniers Brousseau et al. (2021), terpenes have anti-bacterial properties that remove bacteria from the skin. In addition, terpenes have anti-inflammatory properties that in reduce muscle inflammation and pain.

CBD: The legality

It is common for people to assume that CBD may also be illegal, especially due to its close association with marijuana. Marijuana is considered a Schedule 1 drug due to its intoxicating effects. However, in 2018, Congress passed the Farm Bill, which redefined hemp according to the Controlled Substances Act. Consequently, hemp was removed from the legal definition of marijuana since it has no psychoactive effects. On the other hand, state governments were mandated to develop laws regulating the use of CBD in their state; 19 states have legalized CBD for medical and recreational use.

How CBD works in the body

According to Di Marzo et al. (2015), CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system in two possible ways:

  • By combining with endocannabinoids present in the brain.
  • By preventing endocannabinoid reuptake

Studies have shown that CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system by combining with the endocannabinoids present in the brain. The system has receptors in various body parts such as the skin, spine, mouth, and brain. The endocannabinoid system regulates homeostatic processes, pain control, managing anxiety levels, emotional response, and motor control. In addition, CBD interacts with endocannabinoid receptors which send impulses to the endocannabinoid system. CBD oil can dispense its therapeutic properties through this interaction.

Shannon et al. (2019) suggested that CBD helps improve sleep quality by triggering the production of higher melatonin levels that induces the brain to fall into a deep sleep. Ideally, deep sleep helps the body to remove toxic substances and eases the tension in the muscles

According to Sales et al. (2018), CBD also triggers the production of higher serotonin levels, which helps in reducing anxiety levels and improving mood. Serotonin hormone regulates mood, anxiety levels, sleep, digestion, and sexual desire.

The different types of CBD oil

There are three spectrums of CBD; full, broad and isolate spectrum .Full spectrum CBD oil contains all chemical compounds present in hemp. These chemical compounds include, but are not limited to; terpenes, CBD, THC, and flavonoids. However, THC levels are low to prevent any psychoactive effects. Broad spectrum CBD is similar to full spectrum CBD, although it does not contain THC, in contrast, CBD isolate is the purest form of CBD oil since all other chemical compounds (apart from CBD) are removed. The full and broad-spectrum CBD oil exhibit the entourage effect; an entourage effect is a phenomenon in which the chemical compounds present in CBD work harmoniously to enhance the therapeutic effects dispensed to the body.

How to consume CBD oil

CBD oil has various consumption methods. These include gummies, capsules, tinctures, vapes, and topicals. Gummies are chewy edibles infused with precise amounts of CBD oil, while the capsules are pill-like substances with a gelatin outer casing. Capsules are also infused with a precise amount of CBD oil. Notably, both gummies and capsules are ingested. Therefore, they are processed by the gut, and take longer to dispense their therapeutic effects.

In contrast, CBD tinctures are administered under the tongue using a dropper. They have a high bioavailability; they dispense their effects in about 10 to 15 minutes after consumption. The numerous blood capillaries under the tongue and the sublingual glands also help facilitate their absorption into the classroom.

How to shop for CBD tinctures

Before purchasing CBD tinctures, consider the following factors:

Hemp source

States such as Colorado and Kentucky are known for their high-quality hemp plants. This could be attributed to the favorable weather conditions and soil fertility. Hence, the farmers do not require inorganic chemicals that often contaminate the hemp.

Third-party testing

While purchasing CBD tinctures, ensure that the product has undergone intensive independent third-party testing to ascertain the purity and potency levels. The test results are normally indicated on the company’s Certificate of Analysis. Ensure that this certificate is not more than a year old

Extraction process

CBD oil is usually extracted through alcohol extraction and CO2 extraction

Alcohol extraction uses butane to pull out essential oils such as terpenes from the CBD extract. This extraction method is resourceful since it does not require high expertise and can be replicated locally. However, it has grown unpopular since it may leave solvent residues that may reduce the quality of CBD oil. In contrast, CO2 extraction involves using pressurized CO2 to pull out essential oils such as terpenes from the CBD. This extraction method requires high expertise. CO2 extraction is preferred compared to alcohol extraction since it maintains higher purity and potency levels.


There are three major CBD types: full spectrum, broad spectrum, and CBD isolates. These spectrums are infused in CBD oils, such as tinctures, capsules, and gummies. While choosing CBD tinctures, ensure you purchase products from reputable brands. Moreover, ensure that the product has undergone intensive third-party testing. While CBD products are relatively safe for consumption, first-time users should use isolate spectrums, as they contain pure CBD, with no traces of psychoactive THC.



Desaulniers Brousseau, V., Wu, B. S., MacPherson, S., Morello, V., & Lefsrud, M. (2021).             Cannabinoids and terpenes: how production of photo-protectants can be manipulated to    enhance Cannabis sativa L. phytochemistry. Frontiers in Plant Science12, 620021.

Barrie, A. M., Gushue, A. C., & Eskander, R. N. (2019). Dramatic response to Laetrile and          cannabidiol (CBD) oil in a patient with metastatic low grade serous ovarian       carcinoma. Gynecologic oncology reports29, 10.

Sales, A. J., Crestani, C. C., Guimarães, F. S., & Joca, S. R. (2018). Antidepressant-like effect     induced by Cannabidiol is dependent on brain serotonin levels. Progress in Neuro-      Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry86, 255-261.

Di Marzo, V., & Piscitelli, F. (2015). The endocannabinoid system and its modulation by             phytocannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics12(4), 692-698.

Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: a large   case series. The Permanente Journal23.