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UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF TERPENES IN FULL-SPECTRUM CBD PRODUCTS

August 31, 2022 5 min read

UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF TERPENES IN FULL-SPECTRUM CBD PRODUCTS

UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF TERPENES IN FULL-SPECTRUM CBD PRODUCTS

Terpenes give CBD their distinct aroma. Besides, they contain therapeutic properties that complement other cannabis derivatives to provide the entourage effects. Herein are the types of terpenes and their role in full spectrum CBD products.

Full-spectrum products have all the cannabis components, including the psychoactive THC. In addition, it contains terpenes and flavonoids that give the plant its aroma and fragrance, respectively. They also provide an entourage effect to the user. Some terpenes like linalool and pinene are very powerful and have therapeutic benefits. In the current articles, we discuss the role of terpenes in full-spectrum CBD and show how they supplement the other cannabinoids to provide an entourage effect to the body.

What is CBD?

CBD is naturally found in the cannabis plant. The compound has multiple health benefits. It can relieve pain, anxiety, depression, cancer-related symptoms, and other benefits (Bakro et al., 2020). The compound does not make the user high, so it is legal in the U.S.

What is Full-Spectrum CBD?

Bakro et al. (2020) noted that full-spectrum CBD products contain all the multiple compounds found in the cannabis plant, including the psychoactive THC. Other compounds in the full spectrum include terpenes, flavonoids, fatty acids, CBG, and CBN.

What are Terpenes?

Terpenes are chemical compounds in hemp that give the plant its aroma. They also help the plant in protecting itself from predators and attracting pollinators. Additionally, terpenes are volatile compounds in plants, and they are responsible for their aromas. The effectiveness of terpenes differentiates it from other plants. Terpenes don't only give the plant its taste and aroma but also have therapeutic functions. While there are many different terpenes, a few have medicinal significance.

Terpenes in CBD Oil

Terpenes in the cannabis plant are concentrated on flowers and buds. Nuutinen (2018) showed that CBD works with terpenes and other compounds to improve the CBD effects. This means that full-spectrum CBD has more benefits than CBD isolate; the isolates contain limited components of cannabis.

How Terpenes Affect the Body

Nuutinen (2018) observed that terpenes provide a sensory experience when inhaled or tasted. They also have therapeutic benefits useful for treating different diseases.

Types of Terpenes

Limonene

This terpene has a citrus aroma taste. It is commonly found in peppermint, rosemary, and fruit rinds. It relieves stress and anxiety (Nuutinen, 2018). When used together with other cannabinoids, it aids sleep. For example, pinene and THC combine to provide a comprehensive effect.

Pinene

This terpene is found in pine needles, parsley, basil, rosemary, and dill. It is beneficial for asthma due to its bronchodilator effects. Nuutinen (2018) noted that it also has anti-bacteria and antiseptic properties and promotes alertness and memory retention

Myrcene

This type of terpene has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidepressant effects. Studies have shown that it targets certain receptors resulting in anti-inflammatory effects. It is found in mango trees, lemongrass, and hops plants (Nuutinen, 2018). It makes the users sleepy.

Linalool

This terpene is found in lavender and jasmine plants giving an air freshener-like smell. It is believed to have anti-acne, anticonvulsant, and anti-depression properties (Nuutinen, 2018). It combines with CBD and CBN to reduce chronic pain and insomnia.

Humulene

This terpene has earthy, woody, spicy aromas. It occurs naturally in hops, cloves, and basil plants (Nuutinen, 2018). It has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. When combined with THC, it brings appetite suppressant effects.

Caryophyllene

Caryophyllene has pain-blocking, anti-anxiety, and antidepressant effects. It is used in treating pain, cancer, inflammation, addiction, epilepsy, depression, and fungal and bacterial infection (Nuutinen, 2018).

Side Effects of Terpenes in Full-Spectrum CBD Products

Abdel-Aziz et al. (2016) noted that some terpenes may cause;

  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Allergic reaction
  • Dry mouth
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Throat irritation like coughing
  • Interaction with other medicines

Do Terpenes Make you High?

Terpenes cannot make you high but they have indirect psychoactive effects brought by their interaction with the THC compound. Some people report having a psychoactive although it is not common.

Are Terpenes Legal?

The legality of terpenes depends on the state’s law. In states where marijuana is legal, terpenes are considered legal.

Difference between Terpenes and Cannabinoids

Terpenes and cannabinoids are linked together because they share the same chemical precursor. Both terpenes and cannabinoids work together to enhance the entourage effect (Chen et al., 2021). Terpenes and cannabinoids have a very complex relationship whereby terpenes can control the amount of THC that crosses the blood-brain barrier.

Benefits of Entourage Effect Brought by Terpenes in full-spectrum CBD Products

Studies have suggested that CBD products containing the entire compound found in cannabis plants work better than consuming pure CBD. Chen et al. (2021) observed that full-spectrum CBD gives more benefits than CBD isolate. Terpenes in full-spectrum CBD products contain nutrients that support overall health that can be used in supplementing your daily diet. In addition, terpenes stimulate the endocannabinoid system hence managing the body balance.

How to use Terpenes Safely?

Terpenes are found everywhere in fruits and vegetables. This means consuming them daily (Chen et al., 2021).

 Here are some guidelines on how to use terpenes safely:

  • Avoid inhaling concentrated terpenes directly
  • Check the third-party lab reports before buying products with terpenes
  • Use diluted terpenes with carrier oils such as coconut oil or olive oil
  • Wear safety equipment when working with concentrated terpenes.

Conclusion

Terpenes give the plants their distinctive aroma. Full-spectrum CBD helps in the entourage effect by interacting with other cannabinoids found in full-spectrum CBD products. Terpenes such as linalool, pinene, and caryophyllene have therapeutic benefits and can improve CBD benefits. They may have side effects such as dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, allergic reaction, throat irritation, and other side effects. The best way to consume terpenes is to look for diluted ones using carrier oil or those with proof of third-party lab test.

References

Abdel-Aziz, S. M., Aeron, A., & Kahil, T. A. (2016). Health Benefits And Possible Risks Of Herbal Medicine. In Microbes In Food And Health (Pp. 97-116). Springer, Cham.

Bakro, F., Jedryczka, M., Wielgusz, K., Sgorbini, B., Inchingolo, R., & Cardenia, V. (2020). Simultaneous determination of terpenes and cannabidiol in hemp (
Cannabis sativa L.) by fast gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Journal of Separation Science, 43(14), 2817–2826.

Baron, E. P. (2018). Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis, and Benefits in Migraine, Headache, and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 58(7), 1139–1186.

Chen, C., & Pan, Z. (2021). Cannabidiol and terpenes from hemp – ingredients for future foods and processing technologies. Journal of Future Foods, 1(2), 113–127.

   Nuutinen, T. (2018). Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 157, 198–228.