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WHAT DOES FULL SPECTRUM CBD MEAN?

August 31, 2022 4 min read

WHAT DOES FULL SPECTRUM CBD MEAN?

WHAT DOES FULL SPECTRUM CBD MEAN?

Full-spectrum CBD is any CBD product containing all the natural compounds found in the cannabis plant. It comprises terpenes, flavonoids, a little amount of THC, and other cannabinoids.

The effects of cannabis derivatives on the body depend on the chemical components found in the extract. Three spectrums of CBD exist in the cannabis market; full, broad and isolate spectrums. Ideally, the full spectrum contains all cannabis derivatives, including trace amounts of the psychoactive THC. In contrast, the broad spectrum has all chemical components from hemp except the THC, while the isolated spectrum contains CBD as the primary ingredient. The current article discusses the full-spectrum CBD and its chemical components.

What is CBD?

CBD is one of the major compounds found in the cannabis plant. It does not have psychoactive effects. Marinotti & Sarill (2020) noted that CBD is used to treat different health conditions, such as relieving pain and inflammation, relieving anxiety and depression, treating symptoms associated with cancer, and treating epilepsy disease.

The Process of Making Full-Spectrum CBD

Sourcing the Ingredients

Before making full-spectrum CBD, sourcing the right materials is vital. The source of hemp chosen for the extraction process will determine the quality of the end product (Marinotti & Sarill, 2020). Due to the high demand, it is possible to find hemp plants contaminated with synthetic fertilizers. The best extract is obtained from organic hemp grown in countries like the U.S or from regions with smaller carbon footprint; good quality hemp should come from a regulated soil quality, pest control method, and be farmed organically.

Bud Preparation

The plant matter is cured and dried in barns. After the hemp is cured and dried, it contains a compound called CBDA, a precursor of CBA (Marinotti & Sarill, 2020). The hemp flower is decarboxylated to produce CBD. While the CBD is domiciled in the flowers, it could also be extracted from the roots and stalk of the whole flower.

Extraction

Extraction can be done using two methods:

Supercritical CO2

According to Marinotti & Sarill (2020), this is the best method for extracting CBD because it produces the safest product for human consumption. However, this process requires specialized equipment to withstand pressure.

Solvent Organic Method

In this extraction process, ethanol is used as a solvent. This process is gentle compared to the CO2 method. This process involves the introduction of ethanol to the hemp plant and slowly heating it in a water bath where ethanol evaporates, leaving the extracted components behind. While the process is relatively cheaper, the alcohol used can contaminate the end product, undermining its quality.

Distillation

When making full flower formula, the first pass of the organic hemp plant is blended with coconut oil. The whole flower contains all the essential properties in the raw plant, such as terpenes, fatty acids, and other health cannabinoids. Half of the batch is put through a short process called path distillation in the distillation step. Boiling the cannabinoids up to 75% increases the purity of the full-spectrum CBD.

Blending the Carrier Oil

Carrier oil like hempseed or olive oil is blended with the extract. These oils contain fatty amino acids, which are slow to break down. The CBD is oil-soluble; the oil increases its bioavailability. However, the oils can go rancid in six months, reducing the shelf-life of the products.

Adding Flavors to CBD

Some people don't like the CBD taste in the full-spectrum products. Hence, manufacturers infuse the products in gummies, capsules, creams, or balms to dispense the effects without the earthy taste.

Advantages of Full-Spectrum CBD

Full-spectrum CBD contains all the cannabis compounds such as terpenes, THC, and flavonoids. Cogan et al. (2020) noted that it provides and entourage effect due to the synergy among the many cannabis derivatives it contains.

Health Benefits of Full-Spectrum CBD

Helps in Acne

Full-spectrum CBD products suppress the spread of acne, keeping the skin smooth. It reduces acne breakout in the skin by restricting activity in sebaceous glands. Russo et al. (2019) suggested that sebaceous glands are responsible for the secretion of sebum which keeps the skin moist and oily. Full-spectrum CBD helps in maintaining the effective production of sebum preventing acne formation in the skin.

Help in Addiction Reduction

Full-spectrum CBD contains terpenes which help in reducing drug dependency. The presence of THC in the full-spectrum may train the brain into preferring the low level THC in hemp to the highly intoxicating THC in marijuana (Corroon & Felice, 2019).

Pain-relieving

Full-spectrum CBD helps in relieving pain by suppressing the activities of pain-transmitting nerves; the CBD interacts with the body’s ECS systems to medicate multiple functions, including but not limited to pain control (Corroon & Felice, 2019).

Has an Anti-seizure property 

Russo et al. (2019) noted that full-spectrum CBD is used for epileptic seizures. CBD is believed to boost the effects of anti-seizure clinical drugs. It also helps with health conditions such as high blood pressure, insomnia, stress, depression, appetite loss, and mental health conditions by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). ECS, as mentioned earlier, is responsible for regulating the body and brain functions.

Conclusion

Full-spectrum CBD is a compound that contains all the ingredients found in the cannabis hemp plant. It synergistically delivers the maximum entourage effect through various cannabinoids to deliver collective effects. Manufacturing full-spectrum CBD requires two main methods; alcohol extraction and the supercritical CO2 method. The extraction process can also be done using CO2 or organic solvent methods. While CBD is essential for treating multiple health conditions, it has potential side effects. First-time users should use CBD isolates before upgrading to the full-spectrum CBD.

References

Cogan, P. S. (2020). The “entourage effect” or “hodge-podge hashish”: the questionable rebranding, marketing, and expectations of cannabis polypharmacy. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 1–11.

Corroon, J., & Felice, J. F. (2019). The Endocannabinoid System and its Modulation by             Cannabidiol (CBD). Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 25.

Marinotti, O., & Sarill, M. (2020). Differentiating Full-Spectrum Hemp Extracts from CBD Isolates: Implications for Policy, Safety and Science. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 17(5), 517–526.           

Russo, E. B. (2019). The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9.